by Babu G. Ranganathan
Haven't you ever asked yourself how you got your nose, eyes, ears, fingers, toes, and everything else? How did your DNA bring all this about? Before we answer that question we need to know just a few simple things about DNA.
DNA is the abbreviated name for the genetic code and it is exactly that - a code. It is a molecular string of chemical information.
DNA is located in the nucleus of our cells and is made up of smaller molecules called nucleic acids. These smaller molecules in DNA are arranged in a sequence, just like the letters in a sentence. The sequence of these nucleic acids tells the cells of our body how, where, and when to build our nose, eyes, hands, feet, and everything else. If the sequence for a particular trait isn't in our genetic code, then our bodies won't build it.
If the sequence for producing wings is not in the genetic code of an animal then that animal will not develop wings regardless of the environment.
The material our body uses to build new cells comes from the food we eat. Food is not just for energy. Food is also the "lumber" and "bricks" the body uses to build new cells. When a cell multiplies, it makes more cells of the same size. The only way to do this is by getting new material and that new material comes from food.
When food is digested and broken down to its basic amino acids, the various amino acids are then rearranged in a certain sequence to form cells that make up the various tissues and organs. What sequence these amino acids come together in is determined by the sequence of the molecules in DNA.
Thus, when you feed your dog a T-Bone steak, your dog's DNA will make sure that steak is digested and rearranged to form the various parts of your dog, but when you eat the same steak, your DNA will make sure that the steak is digested and rearranged to form human parts.
When scientists study genes, they are studying segments of the DNA molecule.
No one has shown that DNA can come into existence by chance! It takes DNA to get DNA! In other words, there must already exist DNA to direct the formation of more DNA.
Regarding protein molecules, it is has been shown that some individual amino acid molecules making-up proteins can come into existence by chance. But, it has never been shown that the various individual amino acid molecules can come together into a precise sequence by chance to form protein molecules.
Besides all this, none of these molecules can exist for long outside of a living and complete cell! It's a Catch-22 situation for evolutionists.
The mathematical odds of even the simplest DNA molecule coming into existence by chance is comparable to a monkey typing the sequence of all the letters and words in a dictionary by randomly hitting keys on a computer keyboard.
An amazing fact of biology is that every cell in your body, except for your reproductive cells, contains the complete information for the whole body. Yet not all the information in the DNA of your cells is allowed to be expressed or translated. For example, a cell from your hair also contains the complete genetic information for your eyes, brain, heart, liver, skin, and all the rest of the various organs and functions of your body (it's because of this that cloning an entire organism from any cell of the body is possible). However, in the hair cells of your body only the genetic information for your hair is allowed to be expressed, while all the other information is literally "blocked off" from being expressed or translated.
Of course, it is good for us that the cells in our bodies were designed this way; otherwise every cell in our bodies would also be everything else at the same time, which would create utter biological chaos. Truly, we may say with the Psalmist that "we are fearfully (or awesomely) and wonderfully made" (Psalm 139:14). Such biological precision in the cells of our bodies is still beyond the full comprehension of modern science. But the fact remains that the more we comprehend or understand the cell and how it functions, the more we must respect the wisdom behind its engineering and design.
Genetic information, like any other information, doesn't happen by chance. Therefore, it's far more logical to believe that the genetic similarities between all forms of life are because of a common Designer or Genetic Engineer (God) who designed similar functions for similar purposes in all the various forms of life.
Micro-evolution, or variations within a biological kind such as the varieties of dogs, cats, horses, and cows, is science but not macro-evolution. Macro-evolution, variations across kinds, is not science but faith.
The genes exist in all species for micro-evolution but not for macro-evolution, and there is no scientific evidence that random genetic mutations caused by natural forces such as radiation can or will generate entirely new genes for entirely new traits.
Another problem for macro-evolution is the issue of survival of the fittest. How can a partially evolved species be fit for survival? A partially evolved trait or organ that is not completely one or the other will be a liability to a species, not a survival asset.
Most biological variations in species are not because of mutations but because of new combinations of already existing genes.
True mutations are accidents in the sequence of the genetic code caused by environmental forces such as radiation, and almost all true mutations are harmful as would be expected from accidents. Even if a good mutation occurred for every good one there would be hundreds of harmful ones with the net effect, over time, being disastrous for the species as a whole.
The scientific evidence shows that mutations have no ability to construct entirely new or more complex genes. At the very best, mutations only have the capability of producing variations of already existing genes or triggering the duplication of already existing traits (i.e. an extra finger, toe, or even an entire head).
Science cannot prove the existence of God but neither can science prove that we are here by chance.
Both sides of the evolution/intelligent design controversy should have opportunity to present their scientific arguments to students. No one is being forced to believe in God so there is no real violation of separation of church and state.
The Institute for Creation Research at www.icr.org offers excellent articles, books, and resources from Master's or Ph.D degreed scientists showing how true science supports creation.
The author's comprehensive essay "The Natural Limits of Evolution" is available for reading at www.religionscience.com.
The author, Babu G. Ranganathan, has his bachelor's degree with concentrations in theology and biology and has been recognized for his writings on religion and science in the 24 th edition of Marquis "Who's Who In The East."
Alexey Navalny returned to Russia on January 17. He was detained upon arrival at the Sheremetyevo Airport. A court arrested Navalny for 30 days