According to the State Committee of Statistics, in November 2001, shady companies whose incomes were outside any official statistics employed 8.189 million Russia's citizens. The calculation was done as based on data contained in the database set up for the purpose of employment research. It was determined that the shady incomes of 1.675 million or 20.5% of these persons were supplemental. This means that 6.504 million of Russia's citizens' livelihoods totally depended on shady economic activities. Of this number, 77% were employed by entities with less than 5 employees. There were more city and town dwellers (4.525 million) than rural residents (3.654 million) working in the shady sector of economy. Among these persons, there were 4.326 million men and 3.853 million women. Of the total number, 860,000 were employed by industrial companies, 2.694 million - by agricultural and forestry companies, 489,000 - in construction, 360,000 in transportation and communications, 3.295 million - by wholesale and retail companies and food outlets, 181,000 - in housing and 167,000 - in healthcare, sports, social security, education, culture and arts.