Genetically modified (GM) foods gave rise to quite a few frightening rumors that circulate through the town like portends of doomsday. The Agrarian Party of Russia maintains that “slowly but surely you turn into a mutant if you eat imported potatoes.” According to Greenpeace and other environmentalists, GM food causes changes in the genetic code, and those changes are likely to transform the humans into a bunch of underachievers. Newspapers publish stories about the “mutant foodstuffs killing children.” Researchers with degrees in various branches of science claim that GM food can cause cancer. Sausage manufacturers boast about making varieties of “doctor’s sausage” (bologna) or salami that are ostensibly free from GM soy ingredients. We will try to find out if all that fuss holds any water, and find evidence of the so-called “Frankenstein’s food” reportedly created by modern genetics.
Our usual diet mostly comprises vegetable food and meat with mushrooms thrown in for a change. Man invented agriculture for growing foodstuffs. Man also adopted selective breeding to boost the crops. The breeding of the most productive types and groups of plants and animals had been going on for ages.
Agriculturists learned to crossbreed different varieties of the same species or mate one variety with another variety of the same species to produce plants and animals with improved characteristics. The crossbreeding resulted in production of the Kholmogory breed of dairy cattle, bullterriers, and wheat that yields 100 hundredweights to the hectare.
The Russian consumer is afraid of GM foods. The Russian consumer is concerned about the following:
- GM food can change the genetic code of both adults and children. Children are thought to be especially vulnerable, the consumption of GM food will make monsters or retards out of children.
- GM food causes cancer, e.g. cancer of esophagus.
- GM foodstuffs are terrible allergens.
- GM foods are the source of food poisoning.
- GM foods make humans unsusceptible to treatment with antibiotics.
- And last but not least: CM foods are either awful to taste or tasteless.
Genetics appeared in the 20th century as a scientific basis of selection. Researchers eventually found out a basic unit of inheritance and mutation, a gene – now usually defined as a sequence of DNA or RNA – that determines any characteristic of a life form. The gene determines such things as germinating capacity of seeds, milk’s fat content, or, to some extent, a crotchety streak in the personality of the 19th century Russian poet Yuri Lermontov. It was small wonder that researchers came up with an idea of grafting the genes of one creature into another one for the purpose of “inserting” into it some required properties in a quick manner.
In the 1990s, researchers learned to perform the above procedures almost automatically. In short, that is how the genetically modified plants and animals were created.
As a result, a specialist can borrow a fertility gene from some plant and put it into, say, a variety of gooseberry to quickly produce a grade he is after, without spending years on the selective breeding. Therefore, genetic modification is selection at full speed.
Not only high-yield kinds of wheat or breeds of livestock with a high fertility rate are required for modern agriculture. Plants and animals should have a lot of other properties and characteristics.
For example, a high-yield variety of potato will be considered useless if it fails to withstand the activity of Colorado potato beetle. The aim of genetic engineers (biotechnologists) employed by agricultural companies is to create grades and varieties that would meet the requirements of a certain arable and pasture land or specific conditions of growing.
The use of pesticides or chemical preparations for destroying plant and animal pests is a traditional way of fighting Colorado potato beetle and other harmful insects. Unfortunately, plants absorb the poisonous chemicals. Nearly a third of all potato crops in Russia is destroyed by the vicious potato bug. That is why the potato varieties (proof against Colorado potato beetle) produced by biotechnology can be listed among the great achievements of it
Weeds are yet another challenge. One can remember how the Soviet-era bureaucrats addressed the problem in this country some 20 years ago. University students and scientific staff from research institutes were sent to the fields on a weeding mission. But this method has fallen out of fashion since the collapse of the Soviet Union. Migrant workers from Mexico do this kind of work in the southern states of the United States. But migrant workers are getting scarce for weeding all the fields, not to mention the problem of illegal immigration in the United States.
Therefore, U.S. researchers created GM corn that can be resistant to herbicides.